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    What are the types of steel columns used in construction?

    What are the types of steel columns used in construction?

    The column is a vertical part of the building that transfers loads from the foundation to the beam and slab of a construction. A column's adequate depth is three times greater than its smallest lateral dimension. The columns in construction are vital parts. Different types of columns are used in the construction of buildings.

    Typically supporting axial loads, columns are made for compression. The columns may bend due to additional loads such as snow, wind, or other horizontal forces or thrusts. Columns then need to be designed for axial load and bending. Columns are usually constructed from materials with good compressive strength, like steel, stone, brick, concrete, block, etc.

    Types of columns used in construction: -

     Based on types of shape

    1. Square or rectangular columns -  These RCC columns are extensively used to construct heavy structures and buildings. Owing to the simplicity of shuttering and supporting it from collapsing due to pressure while the concrete is still in flowable condition, it is easier to manufacture and cast rectangular or square columns than circular ones. The columns are also cost-effective as compared to other columns.

    2. Circular columns - Circular columns are typically utilised in the piling and elevation of buildings for aesthetic purposes. A circular column's bending resistance is often higher than a square or rectangular column since it uses more than four longitudinal steel bars as reinforcement. Round columns are generally utilised as bridge pillars due to good resistance against deflection.

    3. L shaped - These columns are simple to create and cast, and because of the support they offer, they are frequently an excellent option for giant constructions like buildings. The construction workers use these columns to support corner boundary walls.

    4. T-shaped - The T-shaped column is often used as a side column in structures. Based on their shape, T-shape columns are one form of a column. Depending on their design specifications, these columns may be used by construction workers. A T-shape column is the most typical type of column used when building bridges.

    5. V-shaped - This V-shaped column is typically used when the room's shape is still trapezoidal. As compared to the other columns, sufficient amounts of concrete are needed to build this one.

     Based on the type of reinforcement

    1. Tied columns – Tied columns are usually built out of reinforced concrete. Longitudinal reinforcements are confined within closely spaced tie reinforcement. Approximately all columns in buildings are tied columns.

    2. Spiral columns - These columns are reinforced with a close and consistent spaced spiral reinforcement. Spiral columns' primary purpose is to support them transversely and keep them from barreling. These columns usually consist of 6 bars as longitudinal reinforcement.

    3. Composite columns - These columns are made of structural steel or cast iron column contained in concrete that has been spirally and longitudinally strengthened. In truss structures, composite columns are frequently utilised to prevent steel from corroding. In addition to having a compact cross-section and greater strength, this kind of column performs well in a fire.

    Based on the type of loading

    1. Axially loaded RCC column - A column is axially loaded if vertical axial loads act on the centre of gravity of the cross-section of the column. Axially loaded columns are uncommon in construction because it is impractical to align vertical loads with the centre of gravity of the column section. An example of this kind of column is the interior column of multi-story buildings with symmetrical loads from floor slabs coming from all directions.

    2. Uniaxial eccentrically loaded column - A column is considered uniaxially eccentrically loaded when the axis of vertical loads acts eccentrically on either the X or Y axis of the column cross-section rather than crossing the column's centre of gravity. This loading technique is applied to columns that are rigidly attached to a beam only on one side, such as edge columns.

    3. Biaxial eccentrically loaded column - Biaxial eccentrically loaded columns have vertical loads applied to them that do not align with the centre of gravity of their cross sections and do not act on their X or Y axes. With beams permanently coupled at right angles at the top of columns, biaxially loaded columns are typically employed in corner columns.

    Based on Construction material

    1. Reinforced concrete column - Concrete columns with steel reinforcement are reinforced concrete columns. These columns are mostly used in the construction industry. Concrete is robust under compression but fragile under stress. Hence, to boost this tension capacity, structural steel reinforcing is installed.

    2. Steel column - Steel columns are columns made of structural steel. Steel construction is comparatively more robust, flexible, and long-lasting than concrete structures. There are different types of steel columns, but the T-section steel columns are most commonly used in steel structures.

     When trying to make structural designs a reality, one needs to consider several aspects such as strength, and stability that ensures the longevity of the structures. Columns play an important role in bearing the weight of the building and providing a stable load path from the slab to the foundations of the structure. Therefore, it is imperative that these columns are made from the finest quality TMT bars and structural steel.

     Shop for the best quality steel beams and columns from jswonemsme.com and get them delivered to your doorstep within five days.


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